A COMPARATIVE B-MODE SONOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENT OF CAROTID ARTERY INTIMA MEDIA THICKNESS IN HYPERTENSIVE AND NORMOTENSIVE ADULTS AT JOS
Background: The intima media thickness (IMT) has been established as an early predictor of general arteriosclerosis in patients with hypertension. However, to date, there is paucity of information on IMT of common carotid artery in healthy patients and in patients with risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetics and obesity in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the carotid
intima media thickness in patients with hypertension and normotensive adults attending Jos University Teaching Hospital Jos, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted over a period of four months (November 2012 to February 2013) on 200 hypertensive patients and 100 normotensive adults aged 18 – 70 years. The common carotid artery (CCA) was scanned using an ALOKA SSD-3500 ultrasound scanner with Doppler facility and a 7.5MHz linear transducer. Three measurements of the CIMT were obtained at 1cm proximal to the right and left carotid bulb and the mean value of the three measurements was recorded.
Results: The age range of the 300 patients comprising of 104 males and 196 females was 18 – 70 years with a mean age of 41.44 ±12. The overall mean CIMT was 0.89mm±0.13 and 0.61mm±0.10 for hypertensive and normotensive subjects respectively. Mean CIMT was significantly higher in hypertensive compared to normotensive subjects (p=0.000). CIMT correlated positively with age and blood pressure in hypertensives but had a negative correlation with BMI. However in normotensives, CIMT correlated positively with age and BMI. Male hypertensives had higher CIMT when compared to female. In hypertensive subjects, overall right and left mean CIMT was 0.89 + 0.13 and 0.89 + 0.18, while in normotensives the overall right and left mean CIMT value was 0.61 + 0.10 and 0.60 ± 0.10 respectively. There was no significant difference between the two sides. Artherosclerotic plaques were seen in the wall of the right CCA in six (3%) hypertensive patients, while none was seen in the normotensive group.
Conclusion: This study has shown that there is a significant difference in the CIMT of hypertensive compared to normotensive subject. Higher values of CIMT were seen in hypertensive subject compared to normotensive. Age, sex, BMI and blood pressure levels have significant effect on CIMT of hypertensive patients.